Roundup (R) mechanisms of action and prevention by Dig1 (D) in human hepatocytes HepG2. The different pathways of action identified in this research are summarized with black arrows: action via on mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase, and action via caspases 3/7 inducing cell death (directly or indirectly through cytochrome C, and possibly via death cell receptors), action via cytochromes CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 stimulating the formation of metabolites, and finally action via the inhibition of Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) blocking metabolites derivatization and excretion. D does not act itself at these levels (crossed empty arrows) but prevents R toxicity (black thick lines).
Gasnier et al. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 2010 5:29 doi:10.1186/1745-6673-5-29