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Open Access Methodology

Elimination kinetics of diisocyanates after specific inhalative challenges in humans: mass spectrometry analysis, as a basis for biomonitoring strategies

Lygia T Budnik*, Dennis Nowak, Rolf Merget, Catherine Lemiere and Xaver Baur

Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 2011, 6:9  doi:10.1186/1745-6673-6-9

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Value of biomonitoring for organic diisocyanate exposure

Heikki Savolainen   (2011-12-20 12:01)  Dept. of Occup. safety & hlth., Tampere, Finland email

Dear Editor,

The careful study points out the requirements for correct interpretation of biomonitoring of exposure to diisocyanates (1). The initial urinary elimination half-lives of hexamethylene diisocyanate (2) or toluene diisocyanate monomers (3) are short which may limit the optimal sampling period immediately after the exposure peak (4). However, even end to the shift sampling can reveal the order of the magnitude of the exposure (5,6).

Finally, the mass spectrometric detection of the metabolites may have forensic value as they reveal the polyurethane source in e.g. the fire smoke victims (7).

1 Budnik LT, Nowak D, Merget R, et al. Elimination kinetics of diisocyanates after sepcific inhalative chanllenges in humans: mass spectrometry analaysis as a basis for biomonitoring strategies. J Occup Med Toxicol 2011; 6: 9

2 Rosenberg C, Savolainen H. Determination in urine of diisocyanate-derived amines from occupational exposure by gas chromatography-mass fragmentography. Analyst 1986; 111: 1069

3 Rosenberg C, Savolainen H. Determination of occupational exposure to toluene diisocyanate by biological monitoring. J Chromatogr 1986; 367: 385

4 Huynh CK, Vu-Duc T, Savolainen H. Occupational asthma due to isocyanate exposure: New orientations in the hygienic studies. Soz Präventivmed 1992; suppl. 2: S128

5 Maitre A, Berode M, Perdrix A, et al. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to toluene diisocyanate. Int Arch Occup Environ Hlth 1993; 65: 97

6 Maitre A, Berode M, Perdrix A. Urinary hexane diamine as an indicator of occupational exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate. Int Arch Occup Environ Hlth 1996; 69: 65

7 Rosenberg C, Savolainen H. Mass fragmentographic determination of urinary amine metabolites in rats exposed to degradation products from heated rgid polyurethane. J Chromatogr 1986; 358: 385

Competing interests

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